Wharton’s Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Future of Regenerative Medicine? Recent Findings and Clinical Significance

Taken together, the clinical implication of oxidative stress, telomere length, DNA damage and disease has impaired the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from aged patients. These changes in MSC biology indicate that aged patients may require an alternative source of stem cells for treatment. The high efficiency of Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) recovery, the minimal ethical concerns associated with its acquirement and use, low immunogenicity, and the fact that they are from healthy, young donors make them an ideal source of MSC for autologous and allogeneic applications.

Click Here for more information.

Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Do Not Undergo Malignant Transformation during Long-Term Culturing in Serum-Free Medium

In this study, there was no obvious chromosome elimination, displacement, or chromosomal imbalance as determined from the guidelines of the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Telomerase activity was down-regulated significantly when the culture time was prolonged. Further, no tumors formed in rats injected with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) cultured in serum-free and in serum containing conditions.

This study concluded that their data showed that hUC-MSCs met the International Society for Cellular Therapy sandards for conditions of long-term in vitro culturing. Since hUC-MSCs can be safely expanded in vitro and are not susceptible to malignant transformation in serum-free medium, these cells are suitable for cell therapy.

Click Here for more information.

The umbilical cord matrix is a better source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) than the umbilical cord blood

According to the critical parameters of sample selection described in this study, and using different culture media proposed to enhance the growth of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), in parallel with the use of different methods of cell isolation, the researchers were not able to establish MSC cultures from more than one out of 15 UCB samples. Given the high frequency of MSC in UCM, the study hypothesizes that there may be MSC contamination while collecting cord blood. This may explain the rare described cases where MSC isolation from UCB has been possible. However, it could not be ascertained whether the collection method may have caused the disappearance of circulating MSC from the cord blood MNC compartment in favor of the endothelial/subendothelial layer of the UCM. They conclude that UCB can be excluded as a reliable source of MSC in favor of the richer and more reproducible source that is the UCM, meaning the umbilical cord matrix (UCM) is a better source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) than the umbilical cord blood (UCB).

Click Here for more information.

Comparative Characterization of Cells from the Various Compartments of the Human Umbilical Cord Shows that the Wharton’s Jelly Compartment Provides the Best Source of Clinically Utilizable Mesenchymal Stem Cells

The human umbilical cord (UC) is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with unique advantages over other MSC sources. They have been isolated from different compartments of the UC but there has been no rigorous comparison to identify the compartment with the best clinical utility. This study compared the histology, fresh and cultured cell numbers, morphology, proliferation, viability, stemness characteristics and differentiation potential of cells from the amnion (AM), subamnion (SA), perivascular (PV), Wharton’s jelly (WJ) and mixed cord (MC) of five UCs.

Taken together, it appears that MSCs from the Wharton’s jelly are more superior than those from the PV, SA, AM and MC in terms of clinical utility and research value because: (i) their isolation is simple, quick and easy to standardize, (ii) they have lesser non-stem cell contaminants (iii) they are rich in stemness characteristics, (iv) they can be generated in large numbers with minimal manipulation, (v) they are proliferative and (vi) have broad and efficient differentiation potential.  They will thus be stable and attractive candidates for research and future cell-based therapies when derived, propagated and characterized correctly.

The results of this study show that when isolating MSCs from the umbilical cord, the Wharton’s jelly should be the preferred compartment, and a standardized method of derivation must be used so as to make meaningful comparisons of data between research groups.

Click Here for more information.

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: a new era for stem cell therapy

The human umbilical cord is a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs). Unlike bone marrow stem cells, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) have a painless collection procedure and faster self-renewal properties.  This review critically evaluates their therapeutic value, challenges, and future directions for their clinical applications.

Click here for more information

Comparison of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord tissue by gene expression

All mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) tested were phenotypically similar and of fibroblastoid morphology. Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DP-MSCs) and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UBC-MSCs) were more proliferative than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells(AT-MSCs).

Click here for more information

A comparison of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for cartilage tissue engineering

Compared with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hUCMSCs) have the advantages of abundant supply, painless collection, no donor site morbidity, and faster and longer self-renewal in vitro. In this 6-week study, a chondrogenic (forming cartilage from condensed mesenchyme tissue) comparison was conducted of hBMSCs and hUCMSCs in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold for the first time.

Click here for more information

Immune characterization of mesenchymal stem cells in human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly and derived cartilage cells

This study focused on the immune characterizations of mesenchymal stem cells, derived from Wharton’s jelly found in human umbilical cords.  It was found that these cells have very low immunogenicity and good potential to tolerate rejection. Their intermediate state between adult and embryonic stem cells makes them an ideal candidate for reprogramming to the pluripotent status.

Click here for more information

Immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from amnion, placenta, Wharton’s jelly and umbilical cord

This study aimed to explore alternative sources of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), as deriving cells from bone marrow is an invasive procedure.  The study sought out more accessible sources of MSC, such as from amnion, placenta, Wharton’s jelly and umbilical cord, which are usually discarded.  The study concluded that these alternative sources may potentially be used in place of bone marrow-derived MSCs in several therapeutic applications.

Click here for more information